Hormones, and changes in their levels, can have a significant impact on skin:
- Hormonal changes can trigger the acne of puberty.
- During pregnancy, hormones can encourage the increased production of melanin and a form of hyperpigmentation known as melasma.
- Female estrogen levels decline as part of the biological aging process and especially after the menopause. Estrogen has a beneficial effect on the moisture balance of skin and its decline leads to structural changes and the age-related atrophy of skin.